ABSTRACT: Nowadays, most urban communities live together in urban space is accompanied by the insistence of the population and its needs. The ever-expanding cities and increasingly high rates of population density create various problems of the city. This phenomenon requires a city management that is complicated for the government job, with most efforts aimed at providing the basic services the city whose population is increasing rapidly. An effort made by the revamping of the city is good in order not to neglect social turmoil. Through good urban planning that it will materialize sustainable city all of which can be expressed in spatial planning. In the future, we would expect all cities in Indonesia, which has been growing and developing are not trapped in poverty and the slum, but the cities in Indonesia as a dream city whose residents can live safe, comfortable, peaceful, humane and sustainable. In this paper will be discussed how to promote Bandung in its layout in order to realize sustainable development.
Keywords: Spatial Planning, Sustainable development, Bandung City
 This paper has been presented on International Conference “The Future of Urban dan Peri Urban In Indonesia”, Yogyakarta Indonesia.
- 1. INTRODUCTION
In the global situation recently, there is a global need to achieve higher and better a standard of living than before. People need and want a good place for working, housing, school, and so forth. So, the economic development is more essential in fulfilling that needs. By building infrastructure and other structures must support economic development.
Even so, for many decades, people start off to aware that they cannot increase the quality of life by conventional way. There must be a breakthrough or alternative ways to overcome this situation. It is caused by the rapid growth of population. As we know the number of population has doubled since 1960 for 6.5 billion in 2005 and projected 9.1 billion before 2050. The rapid growth of population has affected toward fulfilling human need. Whether the need for food, land, water, air, or other needs, obviously has impact to the existing of resources in nature. More population in an area, more resources is needed. The resources, mainly natural resources vary in every place in capacity and quantity.
Bandung city, as capital city of West Java Province, is one of the cities with dense population. Its number is about 2, 2 million in 2007. This population, like other big cities in Indonesia, tends to increase because of high population growth and migration from other places. By limitation of the area and resources, the high number of population will affect directly to the pattern of resources use. These tasks will more tough when the problem is not only to utilize resources but also other problem such as social or political could be happened.
The existing condition in Bandung City must be maintained comprehensively so that those who live in it will get their benefit such as amenity for long term. To manage the use of resources wisely and apply the rules in this area are a must to provide sustainability. It is important because the life in it is not for one, two, or ten month and year but for a long time, as long as the earth is exist.
In this paper the author will examine the promoting effort for the sustainability and to what extent the government of Bandung City in promoting this issue on their development planning, and what problems that in the practise the obstacles for the implementation in sustainability development.
- 2. Sustainability and Development Planning
Sustainability and Development Planning is two parts that cannot be separated in term of the existing condition for long term. The condition of our environment will always change and it needs a development to make it better. On the other hand, the development recently must cover the condition for future.
Before we talk about this, we have to know first what is sustainability and development planning. Sustainability is how the ecology system has impact from the human ecosystem. It considered making a less impact to ecology from the development of human ecosystem on the planet earth. Thus, the ecology impact is depending on the human behaviour to build its ecosystem in development planning.
Development planning viewed as the action to shaping the better future, managing resources, have space and time. These keywords related to ecology where human as the actors used those factor to exploiting nature for the growth and development of its ecosystem for the better future. Despite to make a better future, the exploitation still not considered with the ecological framework but to make benefit in economic growth and as a result in degradation of environmental quality.
Therefore, development planning and sustainability are two sides of coin that dependently affect each other in the whole system for ecological framework. In order to make sustainability, then development planning is the first think to make a better future without to harmful or less impact in environment and formed in a sustainable development.
Sustainable development means “economic development and a standard of living which do not impair the future ability of the environment to provide sustenance and life support for the population”. (F. Douglas Muschet, page 1, 1997). According World Commission on Environment from the UN conference on environment and development (1992), sustainable development is the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
Campbell and Hack (1999) viewed a sustainable development solution in ecological viable, socially desirable and economically feasible. These three viewpoints are important aspects to objectify the sustainable solution. These three key ingredients must consider as whole mechanism that must be balanced and simultaneously, and the failure to achieve an equal viewpoints will affect to succession of sustainability.
Figure 1. Encompass the viewpoint of ecologists, economists and sociologists
(Source: C. Lee Campbell and Walter W. Hack, “principles of sustainable development”, P.56, 1997)
- The Existing Condition of Bandung City
3.1 Geographic Condition
Bandung is located at 791 m above sea level (asl). The highest point is 1050 m asl located in northern part and the lowest point is 675 m asl located in southern part. It also lies at 107 degrees East Longitude and 6 degrees 55’ South Latitude. The area of Bandung city is passed through by some rivers. These are Citarum and Cikapundung River. It is used for drainage and raw material for clean water provision. Another raw water resource comes from ground water.
As a capital city of West Java Province, The area of Bandung is about 17.000 Ha or 167 km2. In accordance to topography, geology, hydrology and climatology, Bandung City generally has fertile land because it consists of alluvial land and river and lake sediment. It is very useful if the city is oriented as agriculture area, if not, then it should consider some limitation of geographic condition. In northern part, mostly area is set as conservation area which is characterized by hilly and forest, while in southern area is set as watershed area.
Population in Bandung tends to increase year by year. It is marked by the increase number of population since 1980s. In 1990 the number of population is about 2.058.122 people, and then in 2000 the population is 2.136.260. The growth rate within period 1990-2000 is 0, 37 %. Considering of natural limitation and assuming the growth rate 2, 5 %, then in 2013 the population will be about 2, 95 million people. By this condition, the density of population in Bandung city is 16.035/km2 in 1980, 10.808 km2 in 1990, and 12.802 km2 in 2000. The Nett measurement of population density is 18.800/km2. This number has exceeded the level of standard for population density in Bandung City which ranges from 12.000 to 13.000 per km2.
Land is a place where the production carried out. Land is effectively fixed in supply, meaning that in short term producers can not extend the number. It is also an immobile factor of production. In agricultural sector, land use is more likely to be distributed on the basis of land quality, tenure, and cost (Healey, p. 46, 1990). In primary sectors, the production potential of land is influenced by its quality. The better the quality the higher the price is.
Source: RTRW of Bandung City, 2011-2030
Figure 2. The Land Use Planning in RUTR Kota Bandung 2011
Sustainable development in spatial planning of Bandung City
Considering sustainable development in a region can be seen firstly from spatial planning of Bandung City. The one mission of this city is to make a nice city, comfort, and proper place by providing infrastructure and means in supporting economic development, social, and environment. This mission actually has been bringing the idea about what does looks like this city in the future or in other word the government of Bandung has thought about sustainability the city.
The pattern of space use is applied by considering carrying capacity and capability of environment. As stated in Law No 10/1992 about Demography and Prosperity Family Development, carrying capacity consists of natural, artificial environment and social capability, so that, the development of Bandung City must be distributed evenly. If the development of it tends to focus on central and northern part, then the environment will be threatened.
Development in central and northern part Bandung is applied in RTRW Kota Bandung 2003-2013. Policy that related to environment is stated in RTRW which are supporting and balancing carrying capacity for the sustainable development in natural and artificial environment.
There are several policies that directed and lead to the sustainable development from RTRW Kota Bandung 2003-2013:
4.1 Conservation Area
Another policy in the frame of sustainability, according to spatial planning of Bandung City for 2013, is conservation area. It is stated that the size for conservation area in Bandung at least is 10% from the total size of Bandung. This area is aimed to protect below area from natural disaster and guarantee the availability of underground water resource. The attempts to realize it are to protect conservation area from misuse and keep green open space and try to extend the size for possibly area, particularly in inner city.
The land use for housing, government is trying to limit the size on area for maximum 60% of total area of Bandung City. The increase of population will affect the need of housing; if this is not limited then will cause unbalancing natural condition. The government is attempting to determine location for housing with level of density. Underlying this action is that people who live in it will have a proper environmental neighbourhood. Estimated the size of area for housing in 2013 is about 10.037, 790 Ha provided to serve about 2.950.000 people, while in 2000 the size for housing has reached 53% from total area. Until 2013, there is still about 7% land for housing use which is still appropriate with environmental condition of Bandung City.
4.3. Solid Waste Disposal
The problem of big cities generally is almost similar. Even in a city which has rapid growth the different is just only intensity and capacity. Solid Waste problem is main problem faced by Bandung city. The volume of waste of Bandung is about 2785 m3 per day, which come from West Bandung is about 1066 m3, East Bandung is about 815 m3, and Central Bandung is about 905 m3 per day. To overcome this problem the local government must provide comprehensive solution which can be applied for long term. The policy to solve this problem has been stated in spatial planning of Bandung City which aims to reduce volume and the way to overcome it.
The policies are:
- Reducing waste volume disposed to Tempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) by recycling with certain in certain place using environmental friendly technology.
- Enhancing quality and quality infrastructure and means of waste management.
One way to overcome solid waste by using technology is PLTSa (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah). This technology uses waste disposal as a fuel to provide electric power. The machine is called Incinerator which has capacity 500-700 ton per day. Only about 400-500 ton per day from total solid waste can be used in this process, the rest is used for recycling or it is about 25%. This technology is used by the government of Bandung as one way to solve waste problem which incorporate with private sector.
Actually in this issue, there are 5 aspects involved, these are:
- Pollution Prevention
- Waste Minimizing
For 1 to 3 can be done by society, then 4 to 5 is done by government. Unfortunately, there is no policy from The Government of Bandung to reduce waste by society. The way is only suggesting society to put solid waste in a supposed place.
4.4 Clean Water
Using level of standard of clean water needs, every person needs 175l/p/d. When coverage of service area is 70% in 2008 and 80% in 20143 then clean water provision must be provided by government is about 4202l/s in 2008 and 5690 l/s in 2013. This task mainly is provided by PDAM. While the capacity of PDAM has reached 2200l/s in 2008, there is a lack of capacity for 3490l/s needed to fulfill in 2013.
The way to overcome this needs is to utilize run off in surface water in rainy season and use it in dry season. While the rest of people and industry that need clean water is fulfilled by uncontrolled digging ground water, then it will affect the structure underneath and the damage of environmental condition is inevitably. So, the use of it must be controlled strictly by government.
Actually, government has issued the regulation about it, but because of lack in clean water provision capacity, taking water from ground water is uncontrolled and government cannot control it. Another way to improve clean water provision capacity is enhancing the efficiency in PDAM and increasing the capacity of PDAM to provide clean water. The next planning is enhancing from Cikareo, Cikapundung, Cipanjalu and Gedebage Dam that will provide 3070 l/s. If it is fulfilled then the need in 2013 will be covered.
According to this condition, local government is trying to fulfill the people need of clean water by promoting the ways which is environmental friendly and reducing uncontrolled taking ground water by tight and strict controlling and also suggesting people to use it wisely.
There are several problems that can we classified about how sustainability promoted by local government, actually for Bandung city, the problems are: reducing the air pollution, the availability of open space or green space, and waste management.
Up to now, there is no real program that can accommodate these problems particularly in local planning. So that is a big deal for local government to promote and apply the sustainable development.
Reducing the air pollution means minimize of climate change, smog; acid rain and ozone depletion. There are all created by air pollution, and pose a serious threat to the environment and our health. In many cases in developed country, air pollution can be a main causes for around thousands dead people. Direct causes of death include asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and other respiratory diseases, but there are a host of other health problems linked to air pollution such as allergies, headaches, ear and nose infections, and immune depressive disorders. So that how to make a real program to eliminate this problems and it’s time for start to apply the sustainable development particularly in local government. Those still a big question for us.
Furthermore, the open space or green space that still lives behind is a big deal for Bandung as a big city. This is related to the limited of land availability. The increasing of population and improvement of settlement area makes more land use changes, particularly from farm land to settlement or industry. Open green space (OGS) is spaces in regions or towns in form of area and also has stripes type where in its use more have the character of open which basically without the exploiting and buildings are more have the character of flora or crop forage filler (UU No. 24 Year 1992). Allocation OGS for town earn in form of urban forest, covert area ( river border, coastal border, hilly), green belt, city park and area of lawn green so that in the plan and the management have to consider form and condition each OGS.
Some researches report that OGS existences have effective function in repairing condition of temperatures, dampness, dirt and noise. Zoer’aini (1997) express that existence of OGS can reduce temperature, noise, dirt rate on the air and increase dampness of air. While Booth (1979) arises that green belt with wide of 183 m can lessen air pollution until 75%. According To Purnomohadi (1995), OGS have ability of weakening air pollution specially CO2 and cobalt. Result of research of Puslitbang Jalan indicates that crops which there are in OGS can reduce air pollution as of uses of 5% until 45%. Then, Nazaruddin (1994) add that with existence of OGS adequate, town resident will feel benefit of OGS in the form of aesthetic value, urologist, hydrologist, climatologist, edhapys, ecological, protective, hygienic, tourism and education.
Speed of growth of town hardly determined by the acceleration factors that is amount of economics socials activities and residents which both having character grow (Sujarto, 1991). More people in a town its means that more waste that can produce.
Man in his activity not to be quit of requirement of space. Space of place of they remain in the effort increasing status and quality of the lives that is by processing resource, the good of human resource nor natural resources itself. Realized or not in process of the exploiting of resource of man yield waste, and it will cause contamination of environment. Like formula from ( Environment State’s Minister, 2003) waste is remains an activity in solid form of an organic matter and also inorganic having the character of can raveled and also cannot raveled and assumed have been un useful so that thrown to environment. While definition of environment contamination according to Sunu (2001:4) is the input or admission of alive being, matter, energy, and other component into environment and or the altering of order of environment by human activities or natural process, so that environmental quality get down to level of definite causing that environment is less or cannot function again as according to the utilizing.
Because of waste is produced everyday so that can make a huge volume of waste that must be thrown. The waste and it management now is become problems which insist in towns in Indonesia, because if there is no action it will become the changes of environment balancing which harming or not to be expected causing can contaminate environment do well by land, water and air. Therefore, to overcome the problems it required by operation and handling to waste. Operation and handling will become progressively complex and complicated by progressively the complex of composition and also type of waste in line with progressively the advance of culture. Therefore handling of waste in urban relatively more difficult to be compared by waste in rural areas.
Sustainability development must consider with ecological, social, and economic aspects. Development planning is important step to address the sustainable development. In order to achieve the sustainable development, government as the leading sector in the development planning must consider to the ecological social and economic aspect in one balanced of mechanism. Thus, sustainable development is important to promote in the development and planning process.
To promote the sustainable development in the development planning and process has been already conduct in Bandung city, where the indications are in several policies related to promote the sustainable development such in RTRW 2003-20013. Promoting the sustainable development is harder to apply rather than in the stipulation. Promotion to sustainable development in Bandung city not even in certain policy but must support with others so the real goal in the sustainable development will be achieved.
Although it has policy in sustainability, many problems in Bandung city still homework for all stake holders in order to address the sustainability development. Perhaps the sustainability in Bandung will move in one balanced mechanism as considered in ecological, social, economic and the stabilization of political situation.
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 This paper has been presented on International Conference “The Future of Urban dan Peri Urban In Indonesia”, Yogyakarta Indonesia.